Skip to main content
Skip navigation

Module 3: Control factors for Clostridium botulinum

Section 1: Preventing growth and toxin production

This section gives information about the control factors that should be used singly or in combination to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in chilled foods.

Definition of chilled foods

For the purposes of this training course and the ACMSF guidance, chilled foods are those which require holding at chill temperatures to maintain safety.

Heat treatment in the manufacturing process

Principles in the control of Clostridium botulinum

Background information on specific controlling factors

Non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum

Factors controlling Clostridium botulinum in chilled foods

Using the decision tree

Equivalent time/temperature combinations

Heat treatments

Acidity of the food

Sodium chloride (NaCl) content

Water activity (aw)

Other controlling factors

The uses and limitations of predictive growth models

Repackaging vacuum packed and modified atmosphere packed foods

Summary of control factors